Maritime transport is the movement of people, goods, etc. by boat, ship, and other vessels from seas, oceans, lakes, canals, and rivers.
Maritime transport is a branch of transport that plays an important role in the development of foreign trade. This branch of transportation is considered as one of the most suitable methods of transportation due to its advantages such as low cost of transportation of goods, payment of money against valid documents and speed of action in transporting a large volume of goods.
Advantages of sea transport:
Due to having a lot of space for transporting goods with larger dimensions and weight are more suitable.
More cost-effective than all types of freight (except rail) and fixed fares.
Due to the use of a natural substrate in different situations where other types of transport interfere, maritime transport is able to transfer goods and cargo.
Disadvantages of maritime transport:
Freezing of rivers and canals in winter and water level fluctuations in different seasons of maritime transport are problematic.
Sometimes unforeseen weather changes can lead to damage to the cargo or the risk of overturning loads.
Low speed (compared to air transport) and lack of access to the seas and oceans of some countries
Types of ships
Ships carrying traditional cargo (public goods): For unloading and loading these ships from port equipment or in cases where the ship was moored in a smaller port, ship cranes were used. Multi-purpose ships are currently responsible for this type of ship.
"Trolley" ships: UNITLOAD is a quantity of a cargo that, although it is closed or in bulk, but in order to facilitate unloading and loading in a larger unit, is collected and packaged and in the form of a The package comes independently and together.
Container ships (cargo): These ships are designed to be suitable for carrying containers. Many of these ships do not have their own unloading and loading equipment, and containers are unloaded and loaded by port gantries (GANTRY CRANE), although ships carrying ports without such equipment must carry their own equipment. To be.
RO-RO ships: The cargoes that their nature requires are first loaded on a vehicle such as a trailer, and then this vehicle is driven into the ship with its own cargo and at the destination, so-called on its own foot, it is driven out of the ship. .
Ships: LASHs are ships that are able to load and carry a type of barge that is used for transportation between the oceans and inland waterways.
Large bulk carriers: These ships are also called TRAMP because they are often rented for a voyage and are used to transport grain, cereals and bulk goods such as coal, iron ore and the like.
Tankers: This type of ship is called the giant of the sea. And constitute the largest part of the navy.
FEEDER: These ships are used in coastal waters and short distances and carry cargoes of large ships that are not able to dock in minor ports or have no mooring schedule in a particular port. They move.
Special ships: These include heavy cargo ships: HEAVY LIFT - ships carrying livestock, boats or oil rigs - refrigerated ships carrying fruit or meat or similar products for cargo ships and Towing ships
Other types of ships include the following:
LPG oil tanker
Types of bill of lading
B / L stands for BILL OF LANDING
(HOUSE B / L) or MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT B / L is exchanged between the shipping company and the customer.
Maritime bill of lading (OBL) is a bill of lading issued for sea freight and is of two types.
Transit bill of lading (TRAMP) issued under a lease agreement (CHARTER).
Bill of lading related to the shipping line
TBL Universal Bill of Lading: A national bill of lading is issued whenever it is necessary to have a series of national operations and an agreement is reached for the goods to be moved by several consecutive carriers.
Characteristics of the bill of lading
A bill of lading is a document that is signed by the carrier and indicates that the goods have been received or loaded, and according to this document, the carrier is obliged to deliver the delivered goods to a recipient or to the recipient or to a person. Who holds the bill of lading.
Receipt is the carrier (ship) for the goods described in it
Is an obligation to transport goods from the port of origin (place of receipt) to the destination (place of delivery) of goods
It is a reason for the existence of a contract of carriage which, based on the contents of the bill of lading, specifies the obligations between the carrier and the holder of the bill of lading, for example in cases where the goods are lost, deducted or damaged, and at the same time indicates an agreement on freight. PREPAID prepaid freight must either be received from the consignee, in the latter case called FREIGHT COLLECT or freight at the destination, the fare is determined and entered in the bill of lading.
It can be traded for the purpose of representing or representing the ownership of the goods and can be used in the transaction of the goods and the holder has the right to deliver the goods at the destination.